Author Archive

RFC Word Occurrence

March 23rd, 2012 Comments off

I planned it for a long time, but now seemed to be the right time – just before the next IETF.

Out of curiosity, I wanted to visualize the  occurrence frequency of the following terms over the years: [“MUST”, “MUST NOT”, “REQUIRED”, “SHALL”, “SHALL NOT”, “SHOULD”, “SHOULD NOT”, “RECOMMENDED”, “MAY”, “OPTIONAL”].

Since in majority of cases RFCs represent standards, I was curious to see how the usage of these terms evolved over the years. Of course, a more frequent occurrence of a term “MUST” from year to year does not indicate that the standards have become “stricter” in their statements and requirements, but nonetheless, the dynamics can be observed in the following two graphs.

The first graph (to the right) represents a total number of each keyword/term occurrence over the years. Publication years of the considered RFCs were truncated to 1985-2011, as the occurrence of these terms was minor in preceding years, and 2012 is still underway. “MUST” is a clear dominant among all terms. 2010 witnessed the largest share of “MUST” usage among all RFC document categories. Terms like “SHOULD”, “MAY” and “MUST NOT” have also shown a significant growth. However, the total number of published RFCs has also been increasing over past years, and therefore the graph below normalizes the term occurrence by the total number of RFCs that mentioned any of the terms in the corresponding year. “MUST” is still the dominant term, with a growth rate of ~80% between 2000 and 2010. Terms “MAY” and “SHOULD” follow each other closely. On the other hand, the usage of  terms like “REQUIRED”, “SHALL”, “SHALL NOT”, “SHOULD NOT”, “RECOMMENDED”, “OPTIONAL” between 2000 and 2010 has been steady and low.

There are a number of things that could be further checked, e.g., distribution by document category, according to working groups, correlation with the length of the document, etc., but that will follow at some point in future 🙂

Make your own conclusions (e.g., why do more frequently used terms seem to fluctuate simultaneously?), and feel free to share them with me, as well as any other suggestions on what other interesting stats I could extract from these documents.


IPv6 Traffic is Growing

March 7th, 2012 Comments off

There has been a very positive tendency in the amount of traffic shipped over IPv6. Following the winter break, the amount has increased steadily, and its amount is almost three-fold now, compared to the daily averges of summer 2011. The amount of outgoing IPv6 traffic is still, as expected, very low.


International IPv6 Application Contest 2011

November 1st, 2011 Comments off

Our group applied to participate in the “International IPv6 Application Contest 2011” held by the German IPv6 Council. According to the official page of the Council: “The objectives of this contest are the generation of ideas and applications, which help determine how to introduce IPv6, the Internet of the next generation, on a large scale and use it effectively. The contest also provides an opportunity for the next generation of application developers to gain experience with IPv6.” In accordance with the motto of the contest: “Online on the Road – the new IPv6 Standard as driving forces for mobile communication”, our group submitted a Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) implementation for constrained devices, using the 6LoWPAN adaptation layer for IEEE 802.15.4 wireless links. The implementation carries SNMP messages over UDP/IPv6.

The SNMP implementation was wrapped with a number of components to produce a WattsApp telemetry platform. The platform demonstrates remote monitoring of sensor readings. It consists of a hardware interface to read data from S0 metering interfaces that is connected to an exporter running Contiki SNMP. A data collector is collecting meter readings and interfacing to a cloud server. The cloud server provides user authentication (via Facebook) and interfaces with a web front end as well as an Android application. All components of the Contiki SNMP telemetry application communicate via IPv6. The platform allows for easy integration of collected data into Facebook, therefore fostering a discussion on efficient energy usage, saving techniques and spreading the awareness of power consumption by different appliances in everyday life. The platform extends to many other fields of everyday activities like sports, leisure, appliances and utilities monitoring, making monitoring of “things around us” more social.

The implementation was possible due to the efforts of Advanced Distributed Systems Lab students, CNDS group members and several external affiliates.

Please consult the following two brochures for more information about the telemetry platform and the SNMP implementation.

The platform web-site can be found at

Let’s wait for the results of the selection process in one month! 🙂


IPv6 Update

August 31st, 2011 Comments off

Almost three months passed since the “World IPv6 Day”, and the amount of IPv6 traffic has been almost steady since its first increase on that day.


New Logo for CNDS

July 14th, 2011 Comments off

Our group got a new logo!

The design goal was to make it simple, yet reflecting on the keywords of research carried out within the group: “networks” and “distributed”.

At the same time, the new logo clearly presents the name of the group to the outsider – a feature that the old logo was missing:

Our special thanks go to Dmitry Tsoy [Fb, G+] for being behind the design process of the new logo.