Research

January 20th, 2017

The CNDS research group is actively working on a number of research projects in the computer networking domain. You can find a list of some of our current research topics here. In case you are interested in any of our areas then please contact us for more details. Our research is often embedded into European research projects:

Internet Management Technologies (2003-)

Members of the research group have more than 15 years of experience in the development, standardization and implementation of Internet network management technologies. The recent focus is on the following topics:

  • Interoperability testing of the NETCONF protocol
  • Development of suitable high-level application programming interfaces
  • The definition of the YANG data modeling framework
  • Mappings between SYSLOG messages and SNMP notifications
  • Automated translation of SMIv2 data models into YANG data models

For further information, see the following publications:

  1. H. Asai, M. MacFaden, J. Schönwälder, K. Shima, T. Tsou: Management Information Base for Virtual Machines Controlled by a Hypervisor. RFC 7666, October 2015
  2. M. Badra, A. Luchuk, J. Schönwälder: Using the NETCONF Protocol over Transport Layer Security (TLS) with Mutual X.509 Authentication. RFC 7589, June 2015
  3. M. Bjorklund, J. Schönwälder: A YANG Data Model for SNMP Configuration. RFC 7407, December 2014
  4. V. Bajpai, R. Krejčí: Managing SamKnows Probes using NETCONF. The 14th IEEE/IFIP Network Operations and Management Symposium (NOMS 2014), May 2014
  5. V. Bajpai, J. Schönwälder: NETCONF Interoperability Lab. The 14th IEEE/IFIP Network Operations and Management Symposium (NOMS 2014), May 2014
  6. J. Schönwälder: Translation of Structure of Management Information Version 2 (SMIv2) MIB Modules to YANG Modules. RFC 6643, July 2012.
  7. R. Enns, M. Bjorklund, J. Schönwälder, A. Bierman: Network Configuration Protocol (NETCONF). RFC 6241, June 2011.
  8. B. Linowski, M. Ersue, S. Kuryla: Extending YANG with Language Abstractions. RFC 6095, March 2011.
  9. J. Schönwälder: Common YANG Data Types. RFC 6021, October, 2010.
  10. J. Schönwälder, M. Björklund, P. Shafer: Network Configuration Management using NETCONF and YANG. IEEE Communications Magazine 48(9), September 2010.
  11. L. Andrey, O. Festor, A. Lahmadi, A. Pras, J. Schönwälder: Survey of SNMP Performance Analysis Studies. International Journal of Network Management 19(6), Wiley, November 2009.
  12. S. Bhushan, H. Tran, J. Schönwälder: NCClient: A Python Library for NETCONF Clients. 9th IEEE International Workshop on IP Operations and Management (IPOM 2009), Springer LNCS 5843, October 2009.
  13. J. Schönwälder, A. Clemm, A. Karmakar: Definitions of Managed Objects for Mapping SYSLOG Messages to Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) Notifications. RFC 5676, October 2009.
  14. V. Marinov, J. Schönwälder: Mapping Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) Notifications to SYSLOG Messages. RFC 5675, October 2009.
  15. D. Harrington, J. Schönwälder: Transport Subsystem for the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). RFC 5590, June 2009.
  16. H. Tran, I. Tumar, J. Schönwälder: NETCONF Interoperability Testing. 3rd Conference on Autonomous Infrastructure, Management and Security (AIMS 2009), Enschede, Springer LNCS 5637, June 2009.
  17. J. Schönwälder: Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) Context EngineID Discovery. RFC 5343, September 2008.
  18. J. Schönwälder: Protocol Independent Data Modeling: Lessons Learned from the SMIng Project. IEEE Communications Magazine 46(5), May 2008.
  19. A. Pras, J. Schönwälder, M. Burgess, O. Festor, G.M. Perez, R. Stadler, B. Stiller: Key Research Challenges in Network Management. IEEE Communications Magazine 42(10), October 2007.
  20. J. Schönwälder, T. Jeffree: Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) over IEEE 802 Networks. RFC 4789, November 2006.
  21. D. Black, K. McCloghrie, J. Schönwälder: Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) Scheme for the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). RFC 4088, June 2005.
  22. J. Schönwälder: Characterization of SNMP MIB Modules. 9th IFIP/IEEE International Symposium on Integrated Network Management, pages 615-628, Nice, May 2005.
  23. F. Strauß, J. Schönwälder: Next Generation Structure of Management Information (SMIng) Mappings to the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). RFC 3781, May 2004.
  24. F. Strauß, J. Schönwälder: SMIng – Next Generation Structure of Management Information. RFC 3780, May 2004.

Flow-based Network Traffic Analysis (2007-)

We are interested in understanding how real-world networks behave. Since packet inspection does not scale, we are primarily looking into the analysis of aggregated flow records. We are working both on base technology for processing large amounts of flow records and its application for identifying applications and users based on their specific flow signatures. Our current focus is the following:

  • Cybermetrics – user identification based on flow records
  • Detection of application signatures in flow records
  • Stream-based flow query processing
  • Trace animation and visualization

For further information, see the following publications:

  1. V. Bajpai, J. Schauer, J. Schönwälder: NFQL: A Tool for Querying Network Flow Records. 13th IFIP/IEEE International Symposium on Integrated Network Management (IM 2013), May 2013
  2. V. Bajpai, N. Melnikov, A. Sehgal, J. Schönwälder: Flow-based Identification of Failures Caused by IPv6 Transition Mechanisms. 6th Conference on Autonomous Infrastructure, Management and Security (AIMS 2012), Springer LNCS 7279, June 2012.
  3. V. Perelman, N. Melnikov, J. Schönwälder: Flow Signatures of Popular Applications. 12th IFIP/IEEE International Symposium on Integrated Network Management, Dublin, May 2011.
  4. K. Kanev, N. Melnikov, J. Schönwälder: Implementation of a Stream-based IP Flow Record Query Language. 4th Conference on Autonomous Infrastructure, Management and Security (AIMS 2010), Springer LNCS 6155, June 2010.
  5. N. Melnikov, J. Schönwälder: Cybermetrics: User Identification Through Network Flow Analysis. 4th Conference on Autonomous Infrastructure. Management and Security (AIMS 2010), Springer LNCS 6155, June 2010.
  6. V. Marinov, J. Schönwälder: Design of a Stream-based IP Flow Record Query Language. 20th IFIP/IEEE International Workshop on Distributed Systems: Operations and Management (DSOM 2009), Springer LNCS 5841, October 2009.
  7. P. Dobrev, S. Stancu-Mara, J. Schönwälder: Visualization of Node Interaction Dynamics in Network Traces. 3rd Conference on Autonomous Infrastructure, Management and Security (AIMS 2009), Enschede, Springer LNCS 5637, June 2009.
  8. J. Schönwälder: SNMP Traffic Measurements and Trace Exchange Formats. RFC 5345, October 2008.
  9. G. van den Broek, J. Schönwälder, A. Pras, M. Harvan: SNMP Trace Analysis Definitions. 2nd Conference on Autonomous Infrastructure, Management and Security (AIMS 2008), Bremen, Springer LNCS 5127, July 2008.
  10. V. Marinov, J. Schönwälder: Design of an IP Flow Record Query Language. 2nd Conference on Autonomous Infrastructure, Management and Security (AIMS 2008), Bremen, Springer LNCS 5127, July 2008.
  11. J. Schönwälder, A. Pras, M. Harvan, J. Schippers, R. van de Meent: SNMP Traffic Analysis: Approaches, Tools, and First Results. 10th IFIP/IEEE International Symposium on Integrated Network Management, Munich, May 2007.

Protocols for the Internet of Things (2008-)

The Internet is streching out into everyday objects. There is a large potential in networking things and some people believe that smart objects are even a part of solving our energy consumption problems by enabling smart (power) grids. In the context of the Internet of Things, we are working on the following topics:

  • 6LoWPAN implementation and interoperability testing
  • SNMP on constrained devices (Contiki SNMP)
  • NETCONF on constrained devices (Contiki NETCONF Light)
  • Evaluation of RPL repair processes (ContikiRPL)
  • Development of MIB modules for 6LoWPAN and RPL

For further information, see the following publications:

  1. A. Mayzaud, A. Sehgal, R. Badonnel, I. Chrisment, J. Schönwälder: Mitigation of Topological Inconsistency Attacks in RPL-based Low Power Lossy Networks. International Journal of Network Management 25(5), Wiley, September 2015
  2. M. Ersue, D. Romascanu, J. Schönwälder, A. Sehgal: Management of Networks with Constrained Devices: Use Cases. RFC 7548, May5
  3. M. Ersue, D. Romascanu, J. Schönwälder, U. Herberg: Management of Networks with Constrained Devices: Problem Statement and Requirements. RFC 7547, May 2015
  4. J. Schönwälder, A. Sehgal, T. Tsou, C. Zhou: Definition of Managed Objects for IPv6 over Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Networks (6LoWPANs). RFC 7388, October 2014
  5. A. Sehgal, A. Mayzaud, R. Badonnel, I. Chrisment, J. Schönwälder: Addressing DODAG Inconsistency Attacks in RPL Networks. Global Information Infrastructure and Networking Symposium (GIIS 2014), Montreal, Canada, September 2014
  6. A. Mayzaud, A. Sehgal, R. Badonnel, I. Chrisment, J. Schönwälder: A Study of RPL DODAG Version Attacks. 8th International Conference on Autonomous Infrastructure, Management and Security (AIMS 2014), Springer LNCS 8508, June-July 2014
  7. A. Siljanovski, A. Sehgal, J. Schönwälder: Service Discovery in Resource Constrained Networks using Multicast DNS. 23rd European Conference on Networks and Communications (EuCNC 2014), June 2014
  8. S. Seeber, A. Sehgal, B. Stelte, G. Dreo Rodosek, J. Schönwälder: Towards A Trust Computing Architecture for RPL in Cyber Physical Systems. 9th International Conference on Network and Service Management (CNSM 2013), October 2013
  9. A. Sehgal, V. Perelman, S. Kuryla, J. Schönwälder: Management  of Resource Constrained Devices in the Internet of Things. IEEE Communications Magazine 50(12), December 2012
  10. K. Korte, A. Sehgal, J. Schönwälder: A Study of the RPL Repair Process using ContikiRPL. 6th Conference on Autonomous Infrastructure, Management and Security (AIMS 2012), Springer LNCS 7279, June 2012.
  11. S. Kuryla, J. Schönwälder: Evaluation of the Resource Requirements of SNMP Agents on Constrained Devices. 5th Conference on Autonomous Infrastructure, Management and Security (AIMS 2011), Springer LNCS 6734, June 2011.
  12. K.D. Korte, I. Tumar, J. Schönwälder: Evaluation of IPv6 over Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Networks Implementations. 4th IEEE International Workshop on Practical Issues in Building Sensor Network Applications (SenseApp 2009), IEEE, October 2009.
  13. M. Harvan, J. Schönwälder: TinyOS Motes on the Internet: IPv6 over 802.15.4 (6lowpan). Praxis der Informationstechnik und Kommunikation 31(4), October 2008.

Large-scale Internet Measurements (2012-)

Large-scale measurement platforms such as RIPE Atlas or Sam Knows have been developed in the last few years in order to measure the performance of the Internet from a wide variety of endpoints. A key goal is to estimate the service quality delivered to customers and to identify problems impacting the service quality. In the context of large scale Internet measurements, we are working on the following topics:

  • Standardization of measurement control protocols (LMAP)
  • Development of interfaces between LMAP measurement systems and traditional network management systems
  • Development of new metrics to measure the evolution of the Internet (e.g., transition to IPv6, deployment of multiple layers of NATs, personalization of Internet services, concentration of services on few content delivery platforms)

For further information, see the following publications:

  1. V. Bajpai, J. Schönwälder: A Survey on Internet Performance Measurement Platforms and Related Standardization Efforts. IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials 17(3), August 2015
  2. V. Bajpai, S. J. Eravuchira, J. Schönwälder: Lessons Learned from using the RIPE Atlas Platform for Measurement Research. ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review 45(3), July 2015
  3. V. Bajpai, J. Schönwälder: IPv4 versus IPv6 – Who connects faster?, IFIP Networking Conference 2015, May 2015
  4. S. Ahsan, V. Bajpai, J. Ott, J. Schönwälder: Measuring YouTube from Dual-stacked Hosts, Passive and Active Measurement Conference (PAM 2015), Springer LNCS 8995, March 2015
  5. V. Bajpai, J. Schönwälder: A Report on the 1st NMRG Workshop on Large Scale Network Measurements. Journal of Network and Systems Management 23(1), Springer, January 2015
  6. M. Bagnulo, T. Burbridge, S. Crawford, P. Eardley, J. Schönwälder, B. Trammell: Building a Standard Measurement Platform. IEEE Communications Magazine 52(5), May 2014
  7. V. Bajpai, J. Schönwälder: Measuring TCP Connection Establishment Times of Dual-Stacked Web Services. 9th International Conference on Network and Service Management (CNSM 2013), October 2013
  8. M. Bagnulo, T. Burbridge, S. Crawford, P. Eardley, J. Schönwälder et al.: A Framework for Large-scale Measurements. Future Network and Mobile Summit 2013, July 2013
  9. V. Bajpai, J. Schönwälder: Understanding the Impact of Network Infrastructure Changes using Large-Scale Measurement Platforms. 7th Conference on Autonomous Infrastructure, Management and Security (AIMS 2013), Springer LNCS 7943, June 2013
  10. V. Bashko, N. Melnikov, A. Sehgal, J. Schönwälder: BonaFide: A Traffic Shaping Detection Tool for Mobile Networks. 13th IFIP/IEEE International Symposium on Integrated Network Management, May 2013

Network Security (2006-2011)

The Internet developed from a research network into a fundamental utility for today’s information society and the global economy. While in the early days, security did not play a major role in the design of protocols, the state of things has changed completely. Even though the use of cryptographic algorithms to protect protocols is meanwhile reasonably well understood, the biggest problem remains the interface to humans (in particular key management schemes) but also the performance impact of security protocols must be understood. In this context, we are working on the following topics:

  • Extensions of an SNMP architecture to leverage secure transports such as SSH or TLS/DTLS
  • Design of a session resumption mechanism for SSH
  • Performance analysis of SNMP over SSH/TLS/DTLS
  • Prefix- and lexicographic-order-preserving IP address anonymization

For further information, see the following publications:

  1. J. Schönwälder, V. Marinov: On the Impact of Security Protocols on the Performance of SNMP. IEEE Transactions on Network and Service Management 8(1), April 2011.
  2. J. Schönwälder, G. Chulkov, E. Asgarov, M. Cretu: Session Resumption for the Secure Shell Protocol. 11th IFIP/IEEE International Symposium on Integrated Network Management, New York, June 2009.
  3. V. Marinov, J. Schönwälder: Performance Analysis of SNMP over SSH. 17th IFIP/IEEE International Workshop on Distributed Systems: Operations and Management pages 25-36, Dublin, Springer LNCS 4269, October 2006.
  4. M. Harvan, J. Schönwälder: Prefix- and Lexicographical-order-preserving IP Address Anonymization. 10th IEEE/IFIP Network Operations and Management Symposium, pages 519-526, Vancouver, April 2006.

Underwater Networks (2009-2011)

Underwater networking technologies are recently getting more research attention since the exploration and monitoring of the oceans has become more and more important. In the aquatic environment, acoustic communication is frequently used to cover longer distances since higher frequencies are easily absorbed. Furthermore, the characteristics of the acoustic channel change significantly depending on the depth, salinity, or temperature of the water, and there are often strong fluctuations of the channel characteristics. We are working on the following topics:

  • Channel, propagation and ambient noise models
  • NS-2 based underwater networking simulation
  • USARSim based underwater robotics communication simulation
  • Environmentally adaptive networking (routing, modulation)

For further information, see the following publications:

  1. A. Sehgal, C. David, J. Schönwälder: Energy Consumption Analysis of Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks. MTS/IEEE Oceans 2001, Kona, September 2011.
  2. A. Sehgal, J. Schönwälder: Adaptive Underwater Acoustic Communications. 4th Conference on Autonomous Infrastructure, Management and Security (AIMS 2010), Springer LNCS 6155, June 2010.
  3. A. Sehgal, I. Tumar, J. Schönwälder: AquaTools: An Underwater Acoustic Networking Simulation Toolkit. IEEE Oceans, Sydney, May 2010.
  4. A. Sehgal, I. Tumar, J. Schönwälder: Effects of Climate Change and Anthropogenic Ocean Acidification on Underwater Acoustic Communications. IEEE Oceans, Sydney, May 2010.
  5. I. Tumar, A. Sehgal, J. Schönwälder: Power Management for Acoustic Underwater Networks. 6th IEEE Conference on Sensor, Mesh and Ad Hoc Communications and Networks (SECON 2009), June 2009.
  6. A. Sehgal, I. Tumar, J. Schönwälder: Variability of Available Capacity due to the Effects of Depth and Temperature in the Underwater Acoustic Communication Channel. IEEE OCEANS 2009, Bremen, May 2009.

Disruption Tolerant Networks (2008-2011)

Disruption tolerant networks are designed to provide communication in unstable and stressed environments, where the network is subject to frequent and long lasting disruptions. In this context, we have looked at e that allow to save energy but at the same time offer a high probability to enable communication.

For further information, see the following publications:

  1. I. Tumar, A. Sehgal, J. Schönwälder: Impact of Mobility Patterns on the Performance of a Disruption Tolerant Network with Multi-Radio Energy Conservation. 25th International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications (AINA-2011), Biopolis, March 2011.
  2. I. Tumar, A. Sehgal, J. Schönwälder: Performance Evaluation of a Multi-Radio Energy Conservation Scheme for Disruption Tolerant Networks. 8th ACM International Symposium on Mobility Management and Wireless Access (MobiWac 2010), Bodrum, Turkey, October 2010.
  3. I. Tumar, J. Schönwälder: Resource Management of Disruption Tolerant Networks. 2nd Conference on Autonomous Infrastructure, Management and Security (AIMS 2008), Bremen, Springer LNCS 5127, July 2008.

Distributed Case-based Reasoning (2007-2011)

The resolution of faults in communication networks and distributed systems is to a large extend a human driven process. The fault resolution process is usually assisted by trouble ticket systems to organize the work-flows. Today, the Internet contains a large amount of information that can be used to find similar cases in order to resolve a fault. However, general purpose search engines do not work too well. Our contribution is the design of a distributed case-based reasoning system to assist operators in resolving faults:

  • Peer-to-peer architecture using feedback search
  • Semi-structured multi-vector data representation method
  • Crawlers for extracting data from bug tracking systems
  • Probabilisitic and collaborative reasoning engines

For further information, see the following publications:

  1. H. M. Tran, J. Schönwälder: DisCaRia – Distributed Case-based Reasoning System for Fault Management. IEEE Transactions on Network and Service Management (to appear)
  2. H.M. Tran, J. Schönwälder: Evaluation of the Distributed Case-based Reasoning System Discaria on the Distributed Computing Platform. 7th International Symposium on Frontiers of Information Systems and Network Applications (FINA 2011), Biopolis, March 2011.
  3. H.M. Tran, C. Lange, G. Chulkov, J. Schönwälder, M. Kohlhase: Applying Semantic Techniques to Search and Analyze Bug Tracking Data. Journal of Network and Systems Management 17(3), Springer, September 2009.
  4. H.M. Tran, J. Schönwälder: Fault Resolution in Case-based Reasoning. 10. Pacific Rim Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Springer LNAI, December 2008.
  5. H.M. Tran, G. Chulkov, J. Schönwälder: Crawling Bug Tracker for Semantic Bug Search. 19th IFIP/IEEE International Workshop on Distributed Systems: Operations and Management (DSOM 2008), Springer LNCS 5273, October 2008.
  6. F. Liu, A. Hadjiantonis, H.M. Tran, M. Amin: An Architecture for Supporting Network Fault Recovery Management. 2nd Conference on Autonomous Infrastructure, Management and Security (AIMS 2008), Bremen, Springer LNCS 5127, July 2008.
  7. H.M. Tran, J. Schönwälder: Fault Representation in Case-based Reasoning. 18th IFIP/IEEE International Workshop on Distributed Systems: Operations and Management (DSOM 2007), San Jose, Springer LNCS 4785, October 2007.
  8. H.M. Tran, J. Schönwälder: Heuristic Search using a Feedback Scheme in Unstructured Peer-to-Peer Networks. 5th International Workshop on Databases, Information Systems and Peer-to-Peer Computing (DBISP2P 2007), Vienna, Springer LNCS, September 2007.
  9. H.M. Tran, J. Schönwälder: Distributed Case-based Reasoning for Fault Management. 1st Conference on Autonomous Infrastructure, Management and Security (AIMS 2007), Oslo, Springer LNCS 4543, June 2007.
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